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Job Hazard Analysis/PPE

Hazard CommunicationsJob-related injuries and fatalities occur every day in the workplace. These injuries often occur because employees are not trained in the proper job procedure. One way to prevent workplace injuries is to establish proper job procedures and train all employees in safer and more efficient work methods. Establishing proper job procedures is one of the benefits of conducting a job hazard analysis - carefully studying and recording each step of a job, identifying existing or potential job hazards (both safety and health), and determining the best way to perform the job or to reduce or eliminate these hazards. Improved job methods can reduce costs resulting from employee absenteeism and workers' compensation, and can often lead to increased productivity.

While changing out an electric drive motor for an elevator leg, an employee was struck several times by a rotating turnbuckle used to maintain tension on drive belts. As a crane lifted the electric motor, the loose tension turnbuckle started rotating and struck him. He fell out through the existing guardrails 55 ft to the ground. The employee sustained multiple fractures and died as result of his injuries.

PPE Program Overview

A hazard assessment is an important element of a PPE program because it produces the information needed to select the appropriate PPE for any hazards present or likely to be present at particular workplaces. Employers are then capable of determining and evaluating the hazards of a particular workplace and selecting the appropriate PPE for the work being performed.

Examples of equipment required to be provided by employers include but are not limited to:

Welding or wire mesh gloves
Respirators
Hard hats
Specialty glasses and goggles such as those used for laser and ultraviolet radiation protection
Specialty foot protection such as metatarsal shoes and lineman's shoes with built-in gaffs [such as those used for climbing
Face shields
Rubber gloves, blankets, cover-ups
Hot sticks and other live-line tools used by power generation workers

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Personal protective equipment (PPE) reduces employees' exposures to hazards when engineering the administrative controls are not feasible or effective in reducing these exposures to acceptable levels. Employers should determine all exposures to hazards in their workplace and determine if PPE should be used to protect their workers.

If PPE is to be used to reduce the exposure of employees to hazards, a PPE program should be initialized and maintained. This program should contain identification and evaluation of hazards in the workplace and if use of PPE is an appropriate control measure; if PPE is to be used, how it is selected, maintained and its use evaluated; training of employees using the PPE; and vigilance of the program to determine its effectiveness in preventing employee injury or illness.

Canadian Bill C-45

Bill C-45 is federal legislation that amends the Canadian Criminal Code.

The Bill states “Everyone who undertakes, or has the authority, to direct how another person does work or performs a task is under a legal duty to take reasonable steps to prevent bodily harm to that person, or any other person, arising from that work or task."

Who does Bill C-45 Affect?

Bill C-45 affects all organizations and individuals who direct the work of others, anywhere in Canada. These organizations include federal, provincial and municipal governments, corporations, private companies, charities and non-governmental organizations.

What employers can do to be in compliance with Bill C-45

After proper PPE for each process/equipment has been selected, the employer must provide the equipment to employees and train them in its proper use.

You should:

Know what hazards exist in your workplace
Take steps to effectively reduce or eliminate them 
Inform employees of any risks
Select, supply and require the use of appropriate PPE of each employee
Train each employee on the proper use of their PPE
Document all appropriate employee training
More information on Bill C-45 can be found at http://www.ccohs.ca/

Training Requirements

Bill C-45 is federal legislation that amends the Canadian Criminal Code.

At a minimum, each employee using PPE must know:

When PPE is necessary
What PPE is necessary and which PPE has been selected for each process the employee operates
How to properly put on, take off, adjust and wear PPE
The limitations of the PPE
How to determine if PPE is no longer effective or is damaged
How to get replacement PPE
How to properly care for, maintain, store, and dispose of PPE

After employees have been trained, periodic assessments of the process/equipment should be conducted to ensure that the PPE is adequate and training is appropriate.

Retraining of employees is required whenever:

Changes in the workplace render the previous training obsolete
Changes in the type of PPE render previous training obsolete
Employer observed inadequacies in an employees' knowledge or use of assigned PPE indicates that an employee has not retained the necessary understanding or skill

Employers must verify that each employee who is required to use PPE has received and understood the required training. This must be accomplished via a written certification of training.

Finally, injury and accident data (first aid logs, worker's compensation injuries) should be reviewed to help identify problem areas.

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